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J. Uher, J. Bornemann, and U. Rosenberg, Waveguide Components for Antenna Feed Systems. Theory and CAD, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1993. 10. B. Bhat and S. Koul, Stripline-Like Transmission Lines for Microwave Integrated Circuits, New York: Wiley, 1989. 11. E. A. Wolff and R. Kaul, Microwave Engineering and Systems Applications, New York: Wiley, 1988. 12. L. A. Trinogga, G. Kaizhou, and I. C. Hunter, Practical Microstrip Circuit Design, London: Ellis Horwood, 1991. 13. J. Lange, Interdigited stripline quadrature hybrid, IEEE Tran.

The pattern is displaced with scan and otherwise remains unchanged. The array beam width is therefore constant in (u, v) space for any given azimuth angle φ, but in terms of the θ dependence, the beam width broadens as the array is scanned from zenith (θ = 0) to the horizon. For a large array and scan angle θ 0 not too near the horizon, this beam width is given in terms of the beam width θ B at broadside as The beam width along the scan plane θ thus broadens like sec θ 0 as the array is scanned in θ.

Beam Broadening and Directivity Loss with Scan The expressions for the scanned array pattern indicate that for constant frequency f0 , either phase shifters or time delay units form a beam with peak at the scan parameters (u0 , v0 ) and that the shape of that pattern only depends on the displacement (u − u0 , v − v0 ) and not the scan parameters. The pattern is displaced with scan and otherwise remains unchanged. The array beam width is therefore constant in (u, v) space for any given azimuth angle φ, but in terms of the θ dependence, the beam width broadens as the array is scanned from zenith (θ = 0) to the horizon.

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