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By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

On the flip of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire straddled 3 continents and encompassed remarkable ethnic and cultural range one of the envisioned thirty million humans dwelling inside its borders. It was once might be the main cosmopolitan kingdom within the world--and in all probability the main risky. a short historical past of the overdue Ottoman Empire now offers students and common readers a concise historical past of the overdue empire among 1789 and 1918, turbulent years marked by means of exceptional social swap. relocating previous commonplace remedies of the topic, M. Skr Hanioglu emphasizes wide old traits and techniques greater than unmarried occasions. He examines the imperial fight to centralize amid robust competition from neighborhood rulers, nationalist and different teams, and international powers. He seems heavily on the socioeconomic alterations this fight wrought and addresses the Ottoman reaction to the demanding situations of modernity. Hanioglu indicates how this historical past isn't just necessary to comprehending smooth Turkey, yet is imperative to the histories of Europe and the realm. He brings Ottoman society marvelously to lifestyles in all its facets--cultural, diplomatic, highbrow, literary, army, and political--and he mines imperial data and different records from the interval to explain it because it really used to be, now not because it has been portrayed in postimperial nationalist narratives. a quick heritage of the past due Ottoman Empire is a must-read for somebody looking to comprehend the legacy left during this empire's ruins--a legacy the realm nonetheless grapples with at the present time.

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The last Mamluk governor of Baghdad, Davud Pasha, was not defeated by the central government until 1831. 25 In southern Albania and northern Epirus, Ali Pasha of Tepelenë, a former brigand whose ruthless regime Lord Byron described as “lawless law,”26 enjoyed a similar autonomy verging on independence. With the help of the French, to whom he promised that he would be their “best and most faithful ally,” Ali Pasha managed to extend the area under his administration to the Peloponnese and Aetoloacarnania.

59 At the time, such recognition would have seemed absurd. 57 Mustafa Cezar, Osmanlı Tarihinde Levendler (Istanbul: Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi Yayınları, 1965), pp. 238ff. 58 Yücel Özkaya, Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda Dağlı İsyanları, 1791–1808 (Ankara: A. Ü. Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Yayınları, 1983), pp. 20ff. asp. indd 26 8/23/2007 8:16:00 PM At the Turn of the Nineteenth Century 27 Material Culture In a vast area encompassing myriad peoples, traditions, climates, population densities, and economic conditions, material culture was far from uniform.

10–11. 11 Michael Winter, Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule, 1517–1798 (London: Routledge, 1992), p. 61. 12 Stanford J. Shaw, The Financial and Administrative Organization and Development of Ottoman Egypt, 1517–1798 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962), p. 348. 13 Cengiz Orhonlu, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun Güney Siyaseti: Habeş Eyaleti (Istanbul: Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayınları, 1974), pp. 37ff. 14 [John Lewis Burckhardt], Johann Ludwig Burckhardt’s Reisen in Nubien (Weimar: Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, 1820), pp.

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