By Benedictus de Spinoza
This anthology of the paintings of Baruch de Spinoza (1632-1677) provides the textual content of Spinoza's masterwork, the Ethics , in what's now the traditional translation by means of Edwin Curley. additionally integrated are choices from different works through Spinoza, selected through Curley to make the Ethics more uncomplicated to appreciate, and a considerable advent that offers an outline of Spinoza's existence and the most topics of his philosophy. excellent for direction use, the Spinoza Reader is a pragmatic device with which to technique one of many world's maximum yet so much tricky thinkers, a passionate seeker of the reality who has been seen via a few as an atheist and by means of others as a spiritual mystic.
The anthology starts with the outlet element of the Treatise at the Emendation of the mind , which has continually moved readers through its description of the younger Spinoza's non secular quest, his dissatisfaction with the issues humans often attempt for--wealth, honor, and sensual pleasure--and his wish that the pursuit of data may lead him to find the real stable. The emphasis all through those decisions is on metaphysical, epistemological, and non secular concerns: the life and nature of God, his relation to the area, the character of the human brain and its relation to the physique, and the speculation of demonstration, axioms, and definitions. for every of those subject matters, the editor supplementations the rigorous discussions within the Ethics with casual remedies from Spinoza's different works.
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Extra info for A Spinoza Reader: The Ethics and Other Works
61 Thus, rather than developing a typical idealist conception of reason as the process by which spirit, or mind, eliminates a seeming division by coming to an absolute knowledge of itself, Schelling here develops a conception of reason that is precisely the recognition of an absolute indifference at the heart of all being, and an indifference that is absolutely necessary for an adequate theory of human freedom and the capacity for good and evil. This emphasis on indifference also marks a break from the idea that intellectual intuition can serve as an absolute beginning for thought, as that which posits itself, and behind or before which there is nothing.
5 CONCLUSION The aim of this chapter has been to outline some of the general features of the philosophical projects of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel for the purpose of subsequently developing a philosophical reading of the work of Kierkegaard against the background of the major figures and conceptual concerns of German idealism. Particular emphasis has been placed on the manner in which each thinker offers an account, and in some cases a subsequent critique of, immediacy. This critique of immediacy, or of an absolute philosophical beginning, is what then puts reflection in motion for consciousness and opens up the pathway for speculative philosophy.
16 Fichte goes on to point out that ‘self’ and ‘not-self’ are immediately unified in the ‘I’ and thus distinguished from each other only through the act of reflection. 17 This seeming contradiction between ‘self’ and ‘not-self’ is thus grounded in the priority of self-positing consciousness, as both are aspects of this unified and self-positing consciousness. Only in reflection are these two aspects of the ‘I’ differentiated: ‘self’ as reality, ‘not-self’ as the negation of this reality. He later goes on to associate ‘self’ with pure activity and the ‘not-self’ with the pure passivity, and thus all activity is a negation of passivity, while passivity is a negation of pure activity.