By Alasdair MacIntyre
While After Virtue first seemed in 1981, it was once well-known as an important and almost certainly debatable critique of latest ethical philosophy. Newsweek referred to as it “a lovely new research of ethics through one of many ideal ethical philosophers within the English-speaking world.” on account that that point, the e-book has been translated into greater than fifteen international languages and has bought over 100000 copies. Now, twenty-five years later, the collage of Notre Dame Press is happy to unlock the 3rd version of After Virtue, which incorporates a new prologue “After Virtue after 1 / 4 of a Century.”
In this vintage paintings, Alasdair MacIntyre examines the historic and conceptual roots of the assumption of advantage, diagnoses the explanations for its absence in own and public existence, and provides a tentative suggestion for its restoration. whereas the person chapters are wide-ranging, as soon as pieced jointly they contain a penetrating and concentrated argument in regards to the rate of modernity. within the 3rd variation prologue, MacIntyre revisits the imperative theses of the ebook and concludes that even if he has realized greatly and has supplemented and sophisticated his theses and arguments in different works, he has “as but came across no cause of forsaking the main contentions” of this e-book. whereas he acknowledges that his belief of humans as virtuous or vicious wanted not just a metaphysical but in addition a organic grounding, finally he continues to be “committed to the thesis that it's only from the viewpoint of a truly diversified culture, one whose ideals and presuppositions have been articulated of their classical shape through Aristotle, that we will be able to comprehend either the genesis and the quandary of ethical modernity.”
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Additional resources for After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory (3rd Edition)
On deontological theories, general: Kagan, S. (1989), The Limits of Morality, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chapters 1–2. Kamm, F. (2007), Intricate Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chapter 1. Ross, W. D. (1930), The Right and the Good, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Chapter 2. On acts and omissions: Foot, P. (1978), ‘The problem of abortion and the doctrine of double effect’, in her Virtues and Vices, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 30 WHAT IS UTILITARIANISM? Glover, J. (1977), Causing Deaths and Saving Lives, London: Penguin, Chapter 7.
But perhaps I would not have had any of these desires, if I had been fully ideal and known all relevant evaluative facts. Does this show that it is not good 46 WELL-BEING for me to satisfy my actual desires? Why should we think that the desires of ‘ideal-me’ should decide what is good for ‘actual-me’ when our personalities and tastes can be so different? I think that we should resist the move to ideal desires. Adaptive desires pose a serious problem, but, as I will explain later, there is another solution available that does not disregard actual desires.
Note that the focus is on consistent and rational willing rather than the value of the consequences of everyone thinking it OK to do these things. A more exact formulation of the Kantian universalization principle is the following: It is permissible for you to act on a certain maxim if and only if you can consistently and rationally will that everyone act on it. 26 WHAT IS UTILITARIANISM? A maxim is an individual plan or policy, for example, ‘Whenever I borrow something from a friend, I shall return it’.