By Vera P. Moutafchieva
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Extra resources for Agrarian Relations in the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th Centuries
Such was the case with the villages of Metkovets, Roupcha, and so on, described in the Nikopol register, where we also find a number of mezra with the same remark or indication. 196 Consequently, with mezra that were counted as timar, quite different rules were in force. ould be populated by such households. Practices in the Transfer of Timars All operations connected with the transfer of a timar from one person to another were described with the general term tahvil ("change," a more limited transfer).
So that the ratio between nominal and real timar incomes can be seen, a comparative table of the two amounts has been set out below. Nominal income Real income From 0 to 1,000 akge 7 13 From 1,000 to 2,000 akr;e 28 23 From 2,000 to 3,000 akr;e 46 30 From 3,000 to 4,000 akr;e 45 48 From 4,000 to 5,000 akr;e 25 29 From 5,000 to 6,000 akr;e 21 25 From 6,000 to 7,000 akr;e 11 14 From 7,000 to 8,000 akr;e 7 11 From 8,000 to 9,000 akr;e 6 8 From 9,000 to 10,000 akr;e 7 3 From 10,000 tOe 11 ,000 akr;e 1 1 From 11 ,000 to 12,000 akr;e 2 4 From 12,000 to 13,000 akr;e 0 1 From 13,000 to 14,000 akr;e 0 0 ·2 From 14,000 to 15,000 akr;e 0 Over 15,000 akr;e 1 3 This table makes obvious the amounts by which timar incomes exceeded the set nominal income, and that some of the timars of 3 ,000 akr;e had in fact been included with those of from 4,000 to 10,000 akr;e.
The campaign of Mehmet II against the Turkish Anatolian aristocracy was merciless. The measures he undertook against the internal representatives of the mulk land ownership were no less harsh. Bourgeois historiographers have been unable to explain the removal and even the murder of senior dignitaries, whose place in the government of the state was hereditary-with Halil <;andarli II in first place. 83 That, however, was the first of a number of measures designed not only to impose the timar as- a system of land ownership, but to impose it at the cost of the mulk system in the struggl~ against its representatives.