By Colin Cooke
Realizing, designing and undertaking experiments is on the center of technological know-how. this article introduces the basic rules on which physicists should still construct an intensive experimental method of their discipline.
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This is well illustrated by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, which spans more than 1300 degrees to satisfy all its users. This is achieved by specifying types of thermometer, precise conditions of use, and the fixed points at which they must be calibrated. Interpolation between the fixed points is then possible. 77 K. 16 of the temperature of the triple point of water (the triple point is the point at which there is thermal equilibrium between the three states of matter). This puts into perspective the range of 273–373 K covered by the type of thermometer with which you are most likely to be familiar, the mercury in glass thermometer.
5. Make preliminary measurements This will enable you to get a “feel” for the apparatus. Is it sensitive enough? Is it easy to adjust? Can the scales be read correctly? And so on. You would be a 32 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS remarkable person if you could use an unfamiliar piece of apparatus as effectively the first time as you will with more practice. Enough data should be taken to enable you to make a reasonable estimate of the random error likely to be achieved in the final experiment. If this is unacceptably large then redesigning is needed.
If you think of these two sections as two parts of the same concept you will not go far wrong. As before, errors and units were omitted from the first version to try to persuade you of their importance. 8 is a straight line graph, thus verifying Einstein's photoelectric equation. 240×10−6 V m. 034 eV. This value cannot be checked from standard tables, but is the right order of magnitude. CHAPTER 3 Design of experiments Introduction By “experimental design” I mean performing all the steps necessary for the successful completion of an experiment.