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Download Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography by M. Şükrü Hanioğlu PDF

By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk turned the 1st president of Turkey in 1923, he set approximately reworking his kingdom right into a secular republic the place nationalism sanctified via science--and through the character cult Atatürk created round himself--would reign ultimate because the new faith. This ebook presents the 1st in-depth examine the highbrow lifetime of the Turkish Republic's founder. In doing so, it frames him in the old context of the turbulent age within which he lived, and explores the uneasy transition from the past due Ottoman imperial order to the trendy Turkish nation via his existence and ideas.

laying off mild on the most advanced and enigmatic statesmen of the fashionable period, M. Sükrü Hanioglu takes readers from Atatürk's early life as a Muslim boy within the risky ethnic cauldron of Macedonia, to his schooling in nonreligious and army faculties, to his include of Turkish nationalism and the modernizing younger Turks circulate. Who used to be this determine who sought glory as an formidable younger officer in international struggle I, defied the effective Allies motive on partitioning the Turkish heartland, and defeated the final sultan? Hanioglu charts Atatürk's highbrow and ideological improvement at each degree of his existence, demonstrating how he was once profoundly stimulated through the hot principles that have been circulating within the sprawling Ottoman realm. He indicates how Atatürk drew on a different mixture of scientism, materialism, social Darwinism, positivism, and different theories to model a grand utopian framework on which to construct his new nation.

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Primary schools thus continued to represent tradition, and rejected modern methodologies, curricula, and even equipment, such as blackboards, desks, and maps. While lay elements in non-Muslim communities succeeded in establishing private primary schools that provided a modern education, for most Muslims the only option was the traditional primary school system. It was left to enterprising pedagogues of the Salonican Dönme community to found the first private Muslim elementary schools with more modern curricula and less emphasis on religion.

Still, the founders of these schools clearly intended to prepare their pupils for modern life, and the concessions to religion were made primarily to avoid controversy. The foremost difference between the civilian and military schools was the strictness of military discipline. All pupils wore uniforms, saluted their teachers (most of whom were lowranking officers), and adhered to a strict hierarchy. These schools ardently encouraged competition through an elaborate ranking system. Despite their marked military flavor, their graduates usually went on to nonmilitary high schools.

10 For centuries the Muslim component of the Ottoman Empire had lived a life on the edge, ready to march into battle at a moment’s notice. Moreover, a strict distinction between civil and military spheres did not exist in an empire in which the reality of incessant warfare made military commanders the natural leaders of society. And yet, though army and navy commanders served as cabinet ministers and could become grand viziers, the military as an institution was sidelined in the formulation of policy—until, as Colmar von der Goltz, Denkwürdigkeiten (Berlin: E.

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