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By Jean-Paul Sartre

The prestigious French philosopher's such a lot crucial textual content, Being and Nothingness takes a progressive examine ontology, ethics, and private freedom  In Being and Nothingness, Jean-Paul Sartre heavily examines ontology (the examine of the character of being) and discusses empirical matters that he unearths medical fields fight to give an explanation for. specifically, he delves into the assumption of "freedom over choice," which states that people have entire and overall accountability over their activities. whereas taking care to deal with, construct on, and refute the works of Descartes, Husserl, Hegel, and different previous philosophers, Sartre covers "Being-for-itself," "Being-for-others," and ethics, arguing that the physique and the brain are able to sharing a real unmarried realization.   As one of many seminal works of existentialist concept, and therefore a top of twentieth-century philosophy, Being and Nothingness is a primary textual content for an individual attracted to the sector. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980) used to be an important voice within the production of existential proposal. His explorations of the methods human lifestyles is exclusive between all life-forms in its ability to decide on proceed to steer fields equivalent to Marxist philosophy, sociology, and literary reviews. He used to be presented the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature, yet refused the glory.

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Sample text

It is customary to cover this over with fine phrases; about half of conventional morality is a cloak for it. But it must be faced if the moralists’ aim of improving our actions is to be achieved. It is shown in a thousand ways, great and small: in the glee with which people repeat and believe scandal, in the unkind treatment of criminals in spite of clear proof that better treatment would have more effect in reforming them, in the unbelievable barbarity with which all white races treat Negroes, and in the gusto with which old ladies and clergymen pointed out the duty of military service to young men during the War.

If it were more practised in later life, the world would quickly become a paradise, since it would be quite sufficient to prevent wars, which are acts of passion, not reason. Nevertheless, in spite of the importance of prudence, it is not the most interesting part of morals. Nor is it the part that raises intellectual problems, since it does not require an appeal to anything beyond self-interest. The part of morality that is not included in prudence, is, in essence, analogous to law, or the rules of a club.

Yet the ruling party are supported by the immense majority of ministers of religion, who, with the Pope at their head, have pledged the vast forces of superstition throughout the world to the support of social injustice. In all stages of education the influence of superstition is disastrous. A certain percentage of children have the habit of thinking; one of the aims of education is to cure them of this habit. Inconvenient questions are met with ‘hush, hush’, or with punishment. Collective emotion is used to instil certain kinds of belief, more particularly nationalistic kinds.

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