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By Yutaka Kobayashi

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SOURCES OF BACKGROUND COUNTS The background count rate is always subtracted from the observed sample count rate to obtain the net sample count. When the sample count rate is high compared to the background activity, the background can be ignored but in the analysis of low-activity samples the sensitivity of the determination becomes a function of the background count rate. Knowledge of the sources of the background count rate for a given counter can Sources of Background Counts 55 help, therefore, in achieving low-background conditions when they are required.

K . } Proc. Int. } 2nd, 1954 Vol. 1, p. 313 (1954). 14. Bush, E. T. Anal. Chem. 35, 1024 (1963). 15. Laney, B. In "Liquid Scintillation Counting, Current Developments" (P. E. Stanley and B. ). Academic Press, New York, 1974. 3 General Considerations of Sample Preparation The requirement for toluene or a related substance as the base solvent for liquid scintillation counting solutions initially imposed severe limitations on the variety of samples that could be counted by this procedure. The preparation of samples tended to be an empirical affair, very much the responsibility of the individual investigator, and the literature is replete with efforts made to overcome specific problems.

TUBE SAMPLE PM. TUBE PULSE SUMMATION LOG AMPLIFIER COINCIDENCE UNIT AND GATE PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER-1 PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER-2 PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER-3 SCALER-I SCALER-2 SCALER-3 Fig. 24 Block diagram of a three-channel liquid scintillation counter using logarithmic amplification. , photomultiplier. linear amplifier design (Fig. 18) resulted in more stable and reproducible performance. The spectra of tritium, carbon-14, and chlorine-36 plotted from a logarithmic unit appear as shown in Fig. 25. The abscissa represents the 100 relative volt window of the pulse height analyzer.

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