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Download Categorization and Naming in Children: Problems of Induction by Ellen M Markman PDF

By Ellen M Markman

During this landmark paintings on early conceptual and lexical improvement, Ellen Markman explores the attention-grabbing challenge of the way kids be successful on the activity of inducing ideas. subsidized through wide experimental effects, she demanding situations the primary assumptions of conventional theories of language acquisition and proposes that a suite of constraints or ideas of induction permits little ones to successfully combine wisdom and to urge information regarding new examples of generic different types.

Ellen M. Markman is Professor of Psychology at Stanford collage.

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Example text

Children were not likely to translate unfamiliar names for these objects into known words, because they did not know real word names for them. If the presence of an unfamiliar word still caused children to shift from thematic to taxonomic responding when the materials were also unfamiliar, then this would rule out translation as an explanation for the effect. Four- and 5-year-old children participated in study 4. The design 32 Chapter 2 and procedure were essentially the same as those of the earlier studies.

Even classically defined concepts have graded membership. Another potential problem in interpreting these results comes from work by Barsalou and Sewell (1984). As in previous studies, subjects were asked to rate how typical or good various examples of a category were. In this case, however, they were to make these judgments from several different perspectives, for example, from the point of view of a businessman, housewife, or redneck. Barsalou and Sewell found that the typicality ratings varied with the perspective.

Subjects in the first group were told that each letter string came from one of two categories and that they were to learn the correct category for each one. On each trial they were shown a letter string, asked which category it was from, and told whether they were correct or not. Subjects in the second group were not told that there were two categories of objects and were not given any training or feedback about which category any given letter string belonged to. Instead, they were instructed to learn an arbitrary paired associate to each letter string.

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