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By 柳宗元

  柳宗元,字子厚,是我国唐代杰出的文学家和著名的思想家。他祖籍河东,人称柳河东,曾贬官柳州,因又称柳柳州。他出身于官僚地主家庭,二十一岁中进士,二十六岁第博学宏词科,授集贤殿书院正字,后又任蓝田尉,监察御史裹行。贞元二十一年,与刘禹锡等一起参加主张政治革新的王叔文集团,升任礼部员外郎。不久,革新失败,被贬为永州司马。十年后,改内贬为柳州刺史。又四年,病逝于柳州,年四十七岁。
  柳宗元一生,经历了代宗、德宗、顺宗、宪宗四朝,但他的主要活动是在贞元、元和时期。这时经过历时八年的安史之乱,唐王朝已开始走下坡路,为旧时史家称道的所谓盛唐时代已经一去不返。这场大乱以后,地主阶级和农民阶级的矛盾、地主阶级内部各个阶层和各个集团之间的矛盾,不仅没有缓和,而且都造一步激化了。藩镇军阀依然拥兵割据,并且从河北四镇扩展到内地。

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Extra resources for Collection of Liu Zongyuan (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:柳宗元集)

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At the first level of expression, the brand seems to appeal to consumers of all ethnic backgrounds, but on a deeper level, complex symbolic associations are made to connect with the heritage, knowledge, and cultural capital at large to maintain the classic boundaries of social distinction. Far from the warm, emotional, and tropical narratives, the body discourses, and the logic of luxury are more connected to rational processes. 7 The nature-inspired apparel is conveyed. However, Kate Moss wears a refined and sober evening gown that makes her ‘disappear’ within the ancient tapestry at the Russian embassy in Berlin.

The elites and upper-middle classes have embraced the ‘natural and sensual’ characteristics of the tropical beauty, but provided it with a layer of 32 Brazil sophistication that transforms this beauty discourse into a socially acceptable and desirable one. The new tropical beauty discourse is focused on a constructed naturalism (Besse 2005). Women engage with fashion and sophisticated grooming rituals to transform their bodies in such a way that the final product looks natural, sensual and tropical without being rough.

This intergenerational scene is full of bright colours and light, with relaxed and close bodies who are very concerned with their physical appearance. The very ornamented women wearing daring colours, cuts, and fabrics, and impressive jewels contrast with large smiles, naturally tanned bodies, and simply tied hair. 3 This type of imagery sheds light on possible positioning for global luxury brands that can bring narratives of a warm collective sense of closeness, sensuality, and joy. Implications This discourse expresses the new status of the tropical beauty ideals.

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