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By Ali Resul Usul

This publication examines the impression of eu political conditionality at the means of democratization in Turkey over a twenty 12 months interval. applying theoretical and conceptual techniques to the difficulty of ecu conditionality, the writer compares the case of Turkey to that of different ecu international locations. Arguing that Turkey turned prone to the ecu conditionality while it utilized for club in 1987, he exhibits how the political reforms demanded of Turkey weren't totally conducted because the european had now not in essence authorized Turkey as an authentic candidate in this interval. the ecu has began to exert actual ‘active leverage’ considering Turkey was once declared an reliable candidate in 1999, and the writer explores how those stipulations have exerted a favorable effect on democratic consolidation in Turkey. even though, its effectiveness during this regard has lowered to an important quantity because of a few difficulties that experience persisted to stay relevant in EU-Turkey kin. This finished research of Turkey-EU political kin and democratization areas the case of Turkey inside a global context. As such, it is going to be of curiosity not just to these learning Turkish politics, govt and democracy, yet an individual operating within the zone of diplomacy and the european.

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Additional resources for Democracy in Turkey: The Impact of EU Political Conditionality (Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics)

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The EU examples demonstrate to us that the governing elites in non-democratic countries should likewise be vulnerable to international pressure’ (Pridham 2005: 9). International human rights Human rights form an indispensable part of modern liberal democracy and, therefore, any improvement in the state of human rights in a country will have a positive impact on the quality of democracy there. As Landman (2005b: 1) underlines, along with the global resurgence of liberal democracy in the 1990s, the acceptance of the principal notions of international human rights has grown in ‘breadth and depth’ and the world has entered an age of human rights.

Diamond defines civil society typically as the realm of organized social life that is voluntary, self-generating, (largely) self-supporting, and autonomous from the state, and that is bound by a legal order or set of shared rules. It is distinct from ‘society’ in general in that it involves citizens acting collectively in a public sphere. (1994: 5) Linz and Stepan, among other scholars of consolidation, evaluate ‘free and lively civil society’ among the ‘five other interconnected and mutually reinforcing conditions that must be present, or be crafted, in order for a democracy to be consolidated’ (1996b: 17).

Forms of international impact range from imposing a democratic regime through military intervention (Peceny 1999; von Hippel 2000) to simple cultural influences exerted by a neighbouring country. Main headings covering the international factors in this unscrambled international context include contagion, consent and control as well as conditionality (Whitehead 2001a). Contagion According to Whitehead, ‘contagion through proximity’ is a simple and obvious phenomenon. The cases of France-Belgium-the NetherlandsDenmark-Norway-Germany-Austria-Italy; Jamaica-Trinidad-Barbados-the Bahamas-Dominica-St Lucia-St Vincent-Antigua-St Kitts; Peru-EcuadorArgentina-Bolivia-Uruguay-Brazil; and Poland-Czechoslovakia-East GermanyHungary-Romania-Bulgaria serve as examples that indicate the importance of spatial proximity and thus the contagious character of democratization (Whitehead 2001a: 5; Wejnert 2005).

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