By F. H. Hinsley
This quantity of the hot Cambridge smooth heritage examines the interval on the finish of the 19th century.
Read Online or Download The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 11: Material Progress and World-Wide Problems, 1870-98 PDF
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Additional resources for The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 11: Material Progress and World-Wide Problems, 1870-98
In these circumstances of great fluidity and uncharted courses diplomacy proved no less effective, governments no less cautious, than in the congested and well-trodden paths of the old continent. Beyond Europe, as within it, this was basically due to the operation of the new balance of power between the major European states. New extraEuropean powers were arising; they could go to the lengths of formally declaring war upon another state in the pursuit of their interests, as did Japan against China in 1894, the United States against Spain in 1898.
In France—even in France—divisions and dogmas on constitutional questions, which were almost everywhere losing the force they had once possessed, receded behind the determination of the Opportunist republicans, conservative, empirical and almost uninterruptedly in power from the early 1880's to 1898, to govern by avoiding all contentious measures except those raised by their insistence on social reform. Conservatism in these Western countries would preserve the great achievements of an earlier liberal era; its practitioners worked within an accepted and continuing liberal ethos.
What the evidence in fact reveals is that all these states moved in a conservative direction from different points of departure, and what is significant is that, if at different levels, they all moved in the same conservative direction. There was one main reason for this. They were struck by the economic and social changes of the age when they were at different stages of economic development and in possession of different political structures, the product of their different previous histories. They underwent these changes to different extents.